Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security

Session

Tarteaucitron

Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

atid

Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months

atuserid

Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months

atidvisitor

Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inrae.fr or by post at :

INRAE

24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Logo Université Tours Logo CHU Tours Logo CNRS Logo IFCE Logo Région Centre-Val de loire Logo GIS IBiSA

Home page

Proteomic/Lipidomic by Top-Down

AvBD
© @INRAE
The structural analysis of whole and intact biomolecules by Top-down allows them to be identified.

Top-down analyses use high-resolution mass spectrometry and aim to identify whole and intact biomolecules through their fine structural analysis. The direct analysis of intact biomolecules applies both in proteomics for the identification of peptido- and proteoforms but also in lipidomics for lipids.
PIXANIM has developed Top-down approaches in order to identify whole and intact biomolecules observed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, from direct analysis of biological fluids, whole cells or tissue sections (by profiling or molecular imaging).
Since 2014, PIXANIM offers in particular the analysis of peptidoforms and proteoforms (< 25 kDa) with routine operational methodologies combining preparative liquid chromatography (fractionation/enrichment by gel filtration or reverse phase) and analyses by µLC-MS/MS of each fraction.

top-down bottom-up

top-down bottom-up

Compared to more classical strategies involving the analysis of peptides after proteolytic digestion (bottom-up approaches), the analysis of proteoforms and pepdiforms by a top-down approach remains poorly developed in France and elsewhere; partly because it requires very high-resolution mass spectrometry and dedicated bioinformatics tools.
The advantage of the Top-down approach in proteomics is that it can precisely measure the mass of a protein and then fragment it in order to obtain sequence labels enabling it to be identified and to characterise, in the same analysis, all the post-translational modifications carried by the latter.
These peptido-proteoforms are the major players in cells, tissues or organs that enter into the molecular mechanisms of physiological or pathological functioning. It is therefore important to have a better knowledge of endogenous biomolecules on both a structural and functional level, to follow their distribution in a detailed and dynamic way with their topography within the organs. Peptido-proteoforms observed in situ in biological fluids, cells and tissues are important targets in the search for new biomarkers.

©PIXANIM@INRAE