Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Logo Université Tours Logo CHU Tours Logo CNRS Logo IFCE Logo Région Centre-Val de loire Logo GIS IBiSA

Home page

Molecular phenotyping on tissues and fluids

Coupes de Coeur bélier
Profiling by MALDI-TOF can also be applied to the surrounding tissues and fluids to search for markers.

Molecular phenotyping from tissue sections

profiling ou imagerie

profiling ou imagerie

The search for markers can be applied to tissues by direct in situ analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
This approach can be applied to proteomics as well as lipidomics.
Tissue phenotyping or tissue profiling consists of analysing biomolecules at one or more points in a tissue in order to obtain spectral profiles characteristic of a tissue or region of interest.
After cryosection, the matrix can be manually deposited using a pipette. Several average spectra can then be recorded for each of these spots.
Tissue profiling is applied for relatively homogeneous tissues (same profiles expected at several points) as opposed to molecular imaging which will be applied rather for the analysis of highly differentiated tissues.
The spectral profiles obtained for different spots, from different tissue sections >> from different organs >> from different animals >> from different conditions are then processed for differential analysis in order to characterize biomarkers.
This approach has recently been applied to the proteomic analysis of cardiac muscle, in the ram, to evaluate the damage caused by electric shocks from a defibrillator.


Bodin A, Labas V, Bisson A, Teixeira-Gomes AP, Blasco H, Tomas D, Combes-Soia L, Marcelo P, Miquelestorena-Standley E, Baron C, Angoulvant D, Babuty D, Clementy N.Acute pathophysiological myocardial changes following intra-cardiac electrical shocks using a proteomic approach in a sheep model. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 20;10(1):20252.doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-77346-x. PMID: 33219330; PMCID: PMC7679418.

Molecular phenotyping from biological fluids

Biological fluids are also major targets for the search for markers of a peptide, protein or lipid nature.
Their analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry may require prior treatment, particularly in proteomics. Depending on the fluids, desalting steps by SPE (ex Zip Tip C4 or C18, spin columns) or protein precipitation or ultracentrifugation (ex Amicon, centricon) can be applied to enrich within a certain mass range. However, in lipidomics, fluids are analysed directly by MALDI-TOF, without prior lipid extraction, using the negative and positive mode (polarity applied to the MALDI plate) in order to visualise different families of lipids.
PIXANIM applies molecular phenotyping by high throughput profiling to different biological models such as saliva, seminal plasma, follicular fluid, cervical mucus, oviductal fluid...
Profiling can also be applied specifically to vesicles present in fluids such as exosomes or microvesicles, in both proteomics and lipidomics.
E.g.: MALDI-TOF spectra representative of exosomes and microvesicles from bovine follicular fluid.

Spectres exosomes microvéscules

Spectres exosomes microvéscules